This is a Japanese textbook for learning the English language, titled Eigo Kaitei (英學階梯, literally "English learning ladder"). It was published in 1866 during the late Edo Period by Kaisei-jo, a school of foreign studies set up by the shogunate government.
The school was originally founded in 1856 as Bansho Shirabesho (蕃書調所), or literally the "Institute for the Study of Barbarian Books," and catered to the young samurai. The school's founding was a direct response to the arrival of U.S. Admiral Matthew C. Perry's warships in 1853, which prompted Japan to end its tradition of isolation. The Institute was later renamed to Kaisei-jo (開成所, or Kaisei Office) in 1863.
This appears to have been a reference book for English spelling and pronunciation, with Latin characters appearing next to their corresponding Japanese ones.
A Certificate of Authenticity accompanies these books.
The cover of this book is stained and worn, but the interior pages are all mostly intact. The binding is strong as well, though it has likely been replaced.
Japanese books are read right to left (instead of left to right) and are bound on the right side, contrary to those in Western languages. The pages may be double layered, and care must be taken to ensure that they do not separate when flipping through.
Keep these books pristine: they MUST be stored in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight and out of reach of bugs!