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Origin: The story of the Ptolemaic Kingdom features an all-star cast—it was founded by Ptolemy I Soter (a companion of Alexander the Great) in 305 BC and ended with the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC. Though the kingdom was culturally Greek, the Ptolemies took the title of pharaoh and portrayed themselves in Egyptian dress on statues and monuments in order to gain public acceptance.
These coins were struck during the reign of Ptolemy VI (180 - 145 BC), featuring a portrait of the Greek god Zeus on the obverse and a pair of eagles on the reverse.
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As many empires did, the Ptolemaic Kingdom began with Alexander the Great.
Egypt had been under Persian rule for a decade, but fell under Alexander's control in 332 BC after he conquered Persia.
But Alexander's empire shattered with his unexpected death in 323 BC, and his lands split into three separate states: Macedonia, the Seleucid Empire, and the Ptolemaic Kingdom.
Ptolemy I, the son of Alexander's general Lagos, was appointed ruler of the new territory. Thirteen rulers followed him, ruling over Egypt over a period of 300 years.
Egypt under Greek control was similar to how it was before on a surface level. The monarchy maintained a facade of embracing Egyptian customs, but at it's core was still very Hellenistic.
The Ptolemaic line finally ended in 30 BC, with the death of the last Pharaoh of Egypt: Cleopatra. The empire then fell under the controls of the Romans.
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